The image of Ishtar צלמיכם כוכב אלהיכם, is depicted here as having been carried under a canopy in a procession, a procedure attested in the Assyrian documents (cf. ), Seeking Out the Wisdom of Ancients..Essays … M. Fox (2005), 21–36. LXX and 6QD 14–17] of your king and the kaiwanu [changed deliberately into kiyyun, as skikkuẓ] of your image[s] the star of your god[s] which you made for yourselves." 18:21 & 20:2-5, where Molech worship through children sacrifice is described as a profanation of God's name, and the punishment for Molech worship is DEATH! Molech worship is an abomination unto the Lord which originated from the Ammonites. Greek inscription, found in Acre, that is dedicated to Hadad and Atargatis (= combination of Ishtar and Anath) who listen to prayer (M. Avi-Yonah, in: IEJ, 9 (1959), 1–2). In prophetic sources, Jeremiah 7:31 and Ezekiel 20:25–6 speak disapprovingly of sacrificing children to Yahweh (for the "bad statutes" referred to by Ezekiel, see Ex.
As will be shown below, the introduction of the Moloch coincided with the introduction of the worship of the "queen of the heaven," although the latter persisted after the reform of Josiah whereas the Moloch cult seems to have perished following the reform. In none of these is there a mention of Moloch. (Lev. 1–10 = SAA XIII: 192; for corrected reading see A.L.
The worship of Molech clearly involved ritual child sacrifice, something God's people were not to practice.
Were this true, one would expect to find the Moloch worship in Northern Israel, which was overwhelmed by Phoenician influence, especially at the period of the Omri dynasty. 20:4-5).
The worship of the Moloch along with the worship of the "queen of the heaven" are therefore to be seen against the background of the widespread worship in the Assyro-Aramean culture of Adad/Hadad, the king, and Ishtar Ashtarth/Anath, the queen, that began in the ninth-eighth century B.C.E. First, it is hard to explain how immer (Aram. Molech worship was practiced by the Ammonites and Canaanites, who revered Molech as a protecting father figure.
They built the high places of Baal in the Valley of the Son of Hinnom, to offer up their sons and daughters to Molech, though I did not command them, nor did it enter into my mind, that they should do this abomination, to cause Judah to sin. This interpretation, however, is beset by difficulties. Johns, who first published these documents, contended that burning is used here in the figurative sense, meaning dedication (Assyrian Deeds and Documents, 3 (1923), 345–6). In fact, when natural disasters happen, we should not question why God allows natural disasters, but we should thank God that He only sends a few every year, for our nations and societies deserve annihilation for our sins and abominations, like what God did to adulterous Israel and Judah, wiping out their inhibitants with such calamity that they became an object of scorn, cursing, horror and reproach among the nations where the few survivors are scattered (Jer. O. Eissfeldt, Kleine Schriften, 3 (1966), 335–9). El, the head of the Canaanite pantheon, later identified with Kronos, was named Malkandros (Plutarch, De Iside et Osiride, 16) which means "king of man" (Greek aner [gen. andros], "man"), in other words מלכאדם.
In the Pentateuch, the laws of the Holiness Code speak about giving or passing children to Moloch (Lev. Juan Sanchez. 22:29; Num. Gaster, Myth, Legend and Custom in the Old Testament (1969), 586–8. Micah 6:7), on the one hand, and the Moloch cult which was an established institution with a fixed location (the Topheth), on the other. Furthermore, a series of Assyrian-Aramean documents analyzed by K. Deller showed that Adadmilki or Adadšarru ("Adad the king") was actually the god to whom children, sometimes firstborn, were burned (see below).
If it was completely eradicated by Josiah within the framework of his reform activities (II Kings 23:10), then Jeremiah's references to this worship (7:31, 19:1ff., 32:35) might apply to the days of Manasseh and also to the time of Josiah before the reform (see Y. Kaufmann , Toledot, 3 (1960), 382–90). Home > Skill Builders. This is corroborated by evidence from the Assyrian-Aramean sphere where the epithet "King" is applied to the god Adad/Hadad, who is identified with the Canaanite-Phoenician Baal – was also called "King," cf. This sheds new light on the controversial passage Amos 5:26: "… You carried the canopy [Heb. In place of a physical idol of Molech, we worship at the Molechs of choice and of pleasure (e.g. Here again some scholars understood the term as human sacrifice. bibl.
In the Pentateuch, the laws of the Holiness Code speak about giving or passing children to Moloch (Lev. Thus, sacrificing their children to Molech, besides breaking the first and second commandments, is firstly a violation of the sixth commandment against murder (Ex. Distinction should be made between human sacrifice as a sporadic deed at a time of crisis and distress, such as the holocaust of the son of Mesha king of Moab (II Kings 3:27), or as an act which serves to express an unusual degree of religious devotion as the binding of Isaac (cf.
There is no reason to suppose that the Moloch was introduced as a result of Phoenician influence, as is commonly supposed. Because of all this, the wrath of God is being stored up (Rom. Are we so afraid of being scorned by Man that we are willing to overlook the murder of babies?
This act was punishable by death according to Leviticus 20:2 which states, "Any one of the people of Israel or of the strangers who sojourn in Israel who gives any of his children to Molech … Such a practice is an utter abomination unto the Lord, as children are a gift from the Lord (Ps. The kamānu/kawānu, found in Jeremiah 7:18, and 44:19, is a cultic cake in the form of a star which is the image of Ishtar, who is called in Akkadian kakkab šamê, "the star of the Heaven." The child was then … However, the laws and warnings against the worship of the Moloch could hardly refer to these particular deities.
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